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Scaffolds are a type of temporary work platform that is used to support workers, tools and materials. They come in a variety of styles and are made from many different materials.
- ANSI A10.8 -1988 American National Standard for Construction and Demolition Operations - Scaffolding - Safety Requirements;
- ANSI A14.7- 1991 Safety Requirements for Mobile Ladder Stands and Mobile Ladder Stand Platforms;
- CSA CAN/CSA-Z271 Safety code for suspended powered platforms;
- Another standard accepted by government; and
- Written certification by a professional engineer.
Building and working from a scaffold requires some important safety considerations. For instance, it is important to select the appropriate type of scaffold and carefully assemble it by manufacturer’s instructions. Furthermore, scaffolds must only be set up, used, altered or dismantled under the supervision of qualified persons.
Common concerns when working from scaffolds are:
- Contact with overhead powerlines or other hazards; and
- Dropped or falling objects.
- Make sure workers only use scaffolds that are in safe condition regardless of who provided or built the scaffold.
- Make sure scaffolds are built, changed, and taken down by a qualified worker or under the direct supervision of a qualified worker.
- On scaffolds that will remain on projects for long durations in either fully or partially erected state, or on scaffolds that may be potentially used by persons other than those responsible for their erection, dismantlement, alteration or modification, a notification system must be used to inform workers of the status and condition of the scaffold that includes at least the following information:
- Completed, inspected by a competent person, and ready for use (date and name of the inspector/competent person);
- Partially completed, not ready for use (why, date and name of the inspector/competent person); or
- This scaffold is unsafe, not ready for use. Do not use without prior authorization from _________ (name and contact information for the inspector/competent person.
- Make sure the scaffold is inspected daily, before it is used, and after repair or changes are made.
- Make sure workers do not use any scaffold part that is damaged until it has been repaired. Limited repairs, allowed by the manufacturer, are to be done in accordance with sound engineering practice; all other repairs must be approved by a professional engineer.
- Make sure all parts of the scaffold are compatible, such as when using parts made by different manufacturers.
- Make sure scaffold planks (manufactured or lumber):
- Are at least 5.08 by 25.40 centimetres for rough sawn wood;
- Extend beyond the supporting members at least 15.24 centimetres, but not more than 30.48 centimetres;
- Are supported at intervals no more than 3.05 metres apart for light work and 2.13 metres for heavy work, including bricklaying and masonry;
- Are secured so they cannot be accidently dislodged;
- Have a maximum allowable deflection no more than the span length divided by 80;
- Are visually inspected before installation and defective planks removed from service; and
- Are used according to the manufacturer's instructions and limitations.
- Make sure adjoining scaffold planks (manufactured or lumber) are the same thickness.
- Use a scaffold end frame (i.e., incorporating an appropriate ladder component), ladder or stairway to access a scaffold that is 9 metres or less, above grade or floor level.
- Provide access to otherwise inaccessible working levels of a scaffold that is up to 9 metres above grade or floor level by using one of the following:
- A stairway erected for the full height of the scaffold;
- A temporary passenger hoist approved under the Public Safety Act;
- A vertical fixed ladder with rest platforms located at least every 6.1 metres which are fully guarded except at the access points; or
- A scaffold end frame with a ladder like structure with horizontal members uniformly spaced at 30 centimetres on centre. This scaffold end frame must be fully guarded except at the access points and include rest platforms at least every 6.10 metres.
- Make sure a vertical ladder used to access a scaffold:
- Is securely attached to the scaffold;
- Has side rails that extend one metre above the uppermost working level; and
- Has rungs spaced at 30 centimetres on centre and a clear space of at least 15 centimetres behind each rung.
- Position a ladder so it does not cause the scaffold to become unstable.
- Follow fall protection requirements set out in section 141 to 146 of the OHS Regulations when setting up and taking down a scaffold.
- Make sure scaffolds have vertical members that are plumb; and ledgers and bearers that are level.
- Make sure the lower end of the scaffold’s vertical support is built on a firm and adequately sized foundation or sill.
- Brace poles, legs and uprights to prevent swaying and displacement.
- Guy or secure a scaffold to a building or structure where the height of the scaffold exceeds three times its minimum base.
- When using building ties and/or guys to secure a scaffold the first level of ties and/or guys must be placed at a height no more than three times the scaffold minimum base.
- Place additional building ties and/or guys at:
- Vertical intervals at every third section, for frame scaffolding, or no more than 6 metres apart;
- Horizontal intervals of 6.4 metres apart or at every third bay, whichever is the lesser distance; and
- Each end of the scaffold.
- Make sure building ties and/or guys are capable of resisting a working load of four kilonewtons, applied horizontally and perpendicularly to the scaffold. Where ties are placed close together the ties must withstand a proportionately equivalent load.
- Follow the manufacturer’s instructions or the guidance of a professional engineer where bracing is used as part of a scaffold that is enclosed by a tarp or other covering. This bracing will make sure that the scaffold is capable of carrying the load.
- Make sure the horizontal spacing between uprights, guardrail posts and bearers in a wood scaffold is not more than three metres for a light duty scaffold and two metres for a heavy duty scaffold.
- Make sure adjacent uprights are connected with horizontal runners (ledgers and bearers) so that it’s unbraced vertical length does not exceed 2.4 metres.
- Make sure that scaffolds have diagonal cross braces, running in two directions, that are secured to the uprights as close to the ledgers as possible.
- Make sure wood uprights are only extended using a butt joint strengthened by two wooden splice plates at least 1.2 metres long.
- Make sure splice plates for wood uprights have a minimum thickness of 38 millimetres (as wide as the spliced members).
- Make sure the combined cross sectional area of the splice plates is at least equal to that of the vertical upright member.
- Make sure, when wood uprights are made of laminated pieces, to obtain the required cross sectional dimensions and the distance between joints is at least 1.2 metres.
- Attach wall scabs to the supporting building or structure. Securely fasten bearers to wall scabs. Use bearer blocks to support the inner ends of bearers on single-pole scaffolds.
- Make sure manufactured bearer supports are of an accepted design and secured to solid wall materials.
- Use stiffeners secured to wood studs or blocking to support bearer hooks which engage holes in the wall sheathing.
- Make sure that all parts are compatible if the scaffold is made of parts from different manufacturers.
- Build and use scaffolds according to the written instructions of a professional engineer where the scaffold is one or more of the following:
- More than 25 metres in height;
- More than 20 metres in height and includes a stairway;
- Used to support a temporary floor;
- Subject to loads which may cause the scaffold to overturn; and
- Suspended from a structure, like a building.
- Make sure the scaffold is built plumb. Use an adjustable height base under each upright to accommodate foundation settlement and uneven, sloping or stepped surfaces. In general, do not extend a height adjustment device more than 60 centimetres or two-thirds of the device’s total length, whichever is less. Instructions from the manufacturer may vary.
- Not allow the spacing between frames or uprights to be more than the maximum allowable span of the work platform components and its intended loads.
- Make sure vertical frames and uprights are joined using coupling or stacking pins for proper vertical alignment. If uplift can occur and cause components to separate, secure height adjusting screws, castors, coupling pins, frames, and uprights together to prevent them from separating.
- Not allow the height of a free-standing tower or rolling scaffold to be more than three times its minimum base dimension.
- Install outriggers on both sides of a tower or rolling scaffold where they are used to increase the minimum base dimension of the scaffold. If the scaffold is built against a building or other structure, brace it against the building or structure, and use outriggers on the opposite side.
Light duty single-pole and double-pole wooden scaffolds
|Uprights up to 6.10 metres||5.08 by 10.16|
|Uprights 6.10 to 15.24 metres||10.16 by 10.16|
|Bearers 91.44 centimeters||2.54 by 15.24|
|Bearers 152.40 centimetres||5.08 by 15.24|
|Ledgers||2.54 by 15.24|
|Braces||2.54 by 15.24|
|Wall-scabs and bearer blocks||5.08 by 15.24|
|Minimum platform width||2-5.08 by 25.4|
|Top guardrails||5.08 by 10.16|
|Intermediate guardrails||2.54 by 15.24|
|Toe-boards||2.54 by 10.16|
|Light duty||Heavy duty|
|Uprights to 6.10 metres||5.08 by 10.16||5.08 by 15.24|
|Uprights 6.10 to 15.24 metres||10.16 by 10.16||10.16 by 15.24|
|Bearers 152.4 centimetre span||
2-2.54 by 15.24
2-5.08 by 15.24
|1-5.08 by 15.24||1-5.08 by 25.4|
|Ledgers||2.54 by 15.24||2.54 by 15.24|
|Braces||5.08 by 10.16||2.54 by 15.24|
|Minimum platform width||2-5.08 by 25.4||4-5.08 by 25.4|
|Top guardrails||5.08 by 10.16||5.08 by 10.16|
|Intermediate guardrails||2.54 by 15.24||2.54 by 15.24|
|Toeboards||2.54 by 10.16||2.54 by 10.16|
|Note: Spacing of building ties||Vertical: 4.57 metres||Horizontal: 6.10 metres|
The employer must:
- Make sure wheels are at least 13 centimetres in diameter and secured in the scaffold leg to prevent them from falling out. Wheels must have brakes or locking devices that are used whenever people are working on the scaffold. Wheels on at least one end of the scaffold must by swivel type.
- Make sure height adjusting screws for castors do not extend 30 centimetres or more than two-thirds of their total length, whichever is less.
- Make sure scaffolds mounted on inflated tires have additional supports while they are being built, taken down, and when a worker is on the scaffold.
- Make sure rolling scaffolds are moved over stable firm surfaces free from obstructions, within three degrees of level.
- Not allow a worker on a rolling scaffold while it is being moved.
Tube and coupler scaffolds
Employer must make sure that workers who build, change, or take down tube and coupler scaffolds are properly trained and perform their duties under the supervision of a competent person as per ANSI/ASSE A10.8.
Where 48 millimetre outer diameter aluminum or steel tube components are used, the employer must:
- Make sure the spacing of standards does not exceed three metres.
- Connect standards with ledgers and transoms at a vertical spacing of no more than two metres apart.
- Limit the bearing length of the tube components to 1.2 metres.
The employer must:
- Only use a pumpjack scaffold as a light duty scaffold.
- Make sure the scaffold has guardrails.
- Make sure scaffolds with one or more wooden supports are no taller than 7.3 metres and are braced every three metres, starting at the scaffold base.
- Make sure metal pumpjack scaffolds are no taller than 13.7 metres and are braced every 4.6 metres, starting from the scaffold base.
- Not allow more than two workers on the pumpjack scaffold at one time.
Tubular metal scaffolds
The employer must:
- Make sure that tubular metal scaffolds are built according to the manufacturer’s instructions, including vertical and horizontal bracing.
- Install and connect all the parts of a tubular metal scaffold using the fasteners specified by the manufacturer or those that are equally good.
- Maintain all tubular metal scaffolds according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Running scaffolds and double-pole tube and coupler scaffolds
The employer must:
- Make sure tube and coupler scaffolds have internal horizontal cross-bracing installed in the bay immediately next to a building tie, as well as, being level to the building tie. This bracing is not necessary if equivalent bracing is done with manufactured scaffold planks secured by end hooks to provide a fully decked work platform at this level.
- Take reasonable care to protect his or her health and safety and that of workers and persons at or near the workplace.
- Not climb the outside of scaffold frames between landings.
- Properly wear or use personal protective equipment (PPE), safeguards and safety and devices provided for their protection in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and training provided by the employer.
- Follow safe work practices and procedures.
- Participate in training, hazard assessments, and drills, if provided.
- Not use equipment or perform work tasks where the required training has not yet taken place.
- Report early signs and symptoms of MSIs to the supervisor or employer.
ANSIANSI is the American National Standards Institute.
Standards may be purchased from the ANSI store: https://webstore.ansi.org/
CSACSA is the Canadian Standards Association Group. Certain CSA standards are available for online viewing.
To access these, you must first create an account with "CSA Communities".
Go to: https://community.csagroup.org/login.jspa?referer=%252Findex.jspa
Once you are logged in, click on the text below the "OHS Standards / View Access" graphic.
Click on the jurisdiction of your choice to see the CSA Standards as referenced in that legislation.
Standards may also be purchased from CSA Group: https://store.csagroup.org/
Types of scaffoldsdefinitions
- (a) "building tie" means a connection between a standing scaffold and a permanent structure;
- (b) "double-pole scaffold" means a scaffold with both ends of the bearers supported by connections to posts or uprights;
- (c) "heavy duty" means intended to support both workers and stored or stacked materials, including bricks and masonry, where the maximum load capacity does not exceed 366 kilograms a square metre;
- (d) "light duty" means intended to support workers, their personal hand tools and material for immediate use only where the maximum load capacity does not exceed 122 kilograms a square metre;
- (e) "painter's plank" means a single manufactured extension staging;
- (f) "running scaffold" means a double-pole scaffold comprised of 2 or more bays;
- (g) "scaffold" or "scaffolding" means a temporary work platform and its supporting structure used for supporting workers or materials or both; and
- (h) "single pole scaffold" means a scaffold with the outer ends of the bearers supported on ledgers secured to a single row of posts or uprights, and the inner ends of the bearers supported on or in a wall.
End frame177. (a) end frame scaffold means a system of fabricated tubular metal frames (panels) that are connected in the field with bracing members;
PlumbTo be exactly vertical.
LedgersLedgers are horizontal cross-pieces that run between, and connect at right angles to, vertical standards. They make up the “longer sides” of the scaffold structure.
BearersA type of transom, bearers support work platforms and can be used as part of the system that connects the scaffold to the adjacent structure. They are part of the “ends” of the shorter sides of the scaffold.
Building tie157.(a) building tie means a connection between a standing scaffold and a permanent structure;
TransomTransoms are shorter horizontal components that connect, at right angles, to longer vertical standards. They join standards together at the “shorter sides/ends” of the scaffold structure.
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT
R.S.N.L. 1990, c. O-3
Section 6 Workers' general duty
6. A worker, while at work, shall take reasonable care to protect his or her own health and safety and that of workers and other persons at or near the workplace.
Section 7 Specific duties of workers
7. A worker
(a) shall co-operate with his or her employer and with other workers in the workplace to protect
(i) his or her own health and safety,
(ii) the health and safety of other workers engaged in the work of the employer,
(iii) the health and safety of other workers or persons not engaged in the work of the employer but present at or near the workplace;
(a.1) shall use devices and equipment provided for his or her protection in accordance with the instructions for use and training provided with respect to the devices and equipment;
(b) shall consult and co-operate with the occupational health and safety committee, the worker health and safety representative or the workplace health and safety designate at the workplace; and
(c) shall co-operate with a person exercising a duty imposed by this Act or regulations.
[S.N.L. 1999, c. 28, s. 3; 2001, c. 10, s. 26; 2004, c. 52, s. 2]
Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 2012
Part I GENERAL
Section 2 Interpretation
2. (1) In these regulations
(a) "accident" includes
(i) an event occasioned by a physical or natural cause, or
(ii) disablement arising out of and in the course of employment;
(b) "ACGIH" means the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists;
(c) "Act" means the Occupational Health and Safety Act ;
(d) "administrative controls" means the provision, use and scheduling of work activities and resources in the workplace, including planning, organizing, staffing and coordinating, for the purpose of controlling risk;
(e) "ASHRAE" means the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers;
(f) "authorized" means, in reference to a person, a qualified person designated by an employer to carry out specific functions;
(g) "commission" means the Workplace Health, Safety and Compensation Commission established under the Workplace Health, Safety and Compensation Act ;
(h) "competent" means a person who is
(i) qualified because of that person's knowledge, training and experience to do the assigned work in a manner that ensures the health and safety of every person in the workplace, and
(ii) knowledgeable about the provisions of the Act and these regulations that apply to the assigned work, and about potential or actual danger to health or safety associated with the assigned work;
(i) "construction" means building, erection, excavation, alteration, repair, renovation, dismantling, demolition, structural maintenance, painting, moving, land clearing, earth moving, grading, street and highway building, concreting, equipment installation and alteration and the structural installation of construction components and materials in any form or for any purpose, and work in connection with it;
(j) "CSA" means the Canadian Standards Association;
(k) "engineering controls" means the physical arrangement, design or alteration of workstations, equipment, materials, production facilities or other aspects of the physical work environment, for the purpose of controlling risk;
(l) "hazardous health occupation" means an occupation from which an occupational disease may arise;
(m) "hot work" means work which involves burning, welding, cutting, grinding, using fire or spark producing tools or other work that produces a source of ignition;
(n) "injury" means
(i) an injury as a result of a chance event occasioned by a physical or natural cause, (ii) an injury as a result of wilful and intentional act, not being the act of the worker, (iii) disablement, (iv) occupational disease, or (v) death as a result of an injury arising out of and in the course of employment and includes a recurrence of an injury and an aggravation of a pre-existing condition but does not include stress other than stress that is an acute reaction to a sudden and unexpected traumatic event;
(o) "ISO" means the International Organization for Standardization;
(p) "mine" means mine as defined in the Mining Act ;
(q) "occupation" means an employment, business, calling or pursuit but does not include an endeavour that is not included in one of the classes of occupations in the current National Occupational Classification List developed by the Department of Human Resources and Social Development Canada in collaboration with Statistics Canada;
(r) "occupational disease" means a disease prescribed by regulations under section 90 of the Workplace Health, Safety and Compensation Act and another disease peculiar to or characteristic of a particular industrial process, trade or occupation;
(s) "occupational health service" means a service established in or near a workplace to maintain and promote the physical and mental well-being of workers and may include personnel, equipment, transportation, supplies and facilities;
(t) "plant" means buildings, equipment and facilities where a worker or self-employed person is engaged in an occupation;
(u) "professional engineer" means a person who holds a certificate of registration to engage in the practice of engineering under the Engineers and Geoscientists Act;
(v) "proof test" means a test applied to a product to determine material or manufacturing defects;
(w) "qualified" means being knowledgeable of the work, the hazards involved and the means to control the hazards, by reason of education, training, experience or a combination of them;
(x) "TLV" means the documentation of threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents in the work environment published annually or more frequently by the ACGIH; and
(y) "work platform" means an elevated or suspended temporary work base for workers.
(2) In these regulations, a reference to a code or guideline, unless otherwise stated, includes amendments to that code or guideline and a reference shall be presumed to be a reference to the most current code or guideline.
(3) Where there is a conflict between a standard established by these regulations or a code or standard adopted by these regulations, the more stringent standard applies.
Part III GENERAL DUTIES
Section 15 Working alone
15. (1) In this section, "to work alone or in isolation" means to work in circumstances where assistance would not be readily available to the worker
(a) in case of an emergency; or
(b) in case the worker is injured or in ill health.
(2) An employer shall conduct a risk assessment where a worker is assigned to work alone or in isolation;
(3) Where a risk assessment required under subsection (2) identifies a hazard, appropriate controls shall be implemented to eliminate, or where elimination is not practicable, minimize the risk associated with the hazard;
(4) An employer shall develop and implement a written procedure for checking the well-being of a worker assigned to work alone or in isolation;
(5) A procedure referred to in subsection (4) shall include the time interval between checks and the procedure to follow in case the worker cannot be contacted, including provisions for emergency response;
(6) A person shall be designated to establish contact with the worker at predetermined intervals and the results shall be recorded by the person;
(7) A procedure referred to in subsection (4) shall be developed in consultation with the worker assigned to work alone or in isolation, the occupational health and safety committee, the worker health and safety representative or designate, whichever applies;
(8) A procedure referred to in subsection (4) shall be reviewed at least annually, or more frequently if there is
(a) a change in work arrangements that may adversely affect a worker's well-being or safety; or
(b) a report that procedures are not working effectively.
Section 17 General duties of workers
17. (1) A worker shall make proper use of all necessary safeguards, protective clothing, safety devices, lifting devices or aids, and appliances
(a) designated and provided for his or her protection by the employer; or
(b) required under these regulations to be used or worn by a worker.
(2) A worker shall follow the safe work procedure in which he or she has been instructed.
(3) A worker shall immediately report a hazardous work condition that may come to his or her attention to the employer or supervisor.
Part V GENERAL HEALTH AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
Section 28 Guardrails
28. (1) Guardrails shall be installed where an open-sided floor, working platform, runway, walkway or balcony is over 1.22 metres above the existing floor or ground level.
(2) Detour guardrails shall be installed where a stairway ends in direct proximity to dangerous traffic or other hazards.
(3) An employer shall ensure that a guardrail is secured so that it cannot move in any direction if it is struck or if a point on it comes in contact with a worker, materials or equipment.
(4) Guardrails shall be installed on walkways over open tanks containing harmful substances or over open tanks 1.22 metres or more in depth.
(5) Walkways and platforms installed over machinery and work areas shall be equipped with toe boards at least 10 centimetres high along all sides of the walkway or platform.
(6) A guard rail shall have a top rail located at least .9 metres but not more than 1.1 metres above the working surface and an intermediate rail located midway between the top rail and the working surface.
Part X FALL PROTECTION
Section 141 General requirements
141. Where a worker is exposed to the hazard of falling from a work area that is
(a) 3 metres or more above the nearest safe surface or water;
(b) above a surface or thing that could cause injury to the worker if the worker were to fall on the surface or thing; or
(c) above an open tank, pit or vat containing hazardous material,
the employer shall ensure that
(d) the worker is provided with a fall arrest system that meets the requirements of section 142;
(e) a guardrail that meets the requirements of section 28 is constructed or installed at the work area;
(f) a personnel safety net that meets the requirements of section 143 is installed at the work area;
(g) temporary flooring that meets the requirements of section 146 is constructed or installed at the work area; or
(h) the worker is provided with another means of fall protection that provides a level of safety equal to or greater than a fall arrest system that meets the requirements of section 142.
Section 142 Fall arrest system
142. (1) A fall arrest system that is provided in accordance with section 141 shall
(a) be adequately secured to
(i) an anchorage point, or
(ii) a lifeline that is
(A) securely fastened to anchor points, or
(B) attached to a static line that is securely fastened to anchorage points and that is capable of withstanding either the maximum load likely to be imposed on the anchorage point or a load of 22.2 kilonewtons, whichever is the greater;
(b) include a lanyard
(i) that is attached to an anchorage point or lifeline, where practicable, above the shoulder of the worker, and
(ii) that complies with CSA Standard Z259.11 "Energy Absorbers and Lanyards ";
(c) prevent a free fall greater than 1.22 metres where
(i) the fall arrest system is not equipped with a shock absorption system that complies with CSA Standard Z259.11 "Energy Absorbers and Lanyards" and that reduces the shock level of a fall to less than 4 kilonewtons, or
(ii) the combined free fall and shock absorbed deceleration distance exceeds the distance between the work area and a safe surface; and
(d) include a full body harness that
(i) is attached to a lanyard,
(ii) is adjusted to fit the user of the harness, and
(iii) complies with CSA Standard Z259.10 "Full Body Harnesses" .
(2) Where a fall arrest system includes a lifeline, the lifeline shall
(a) comply with CSA Standard Z259.2.1 "Fall Arresters, Vertical Lifelines and Rails";
(b) extend to a safe surface below the work area and be securely attached to an anchorage point;
(c) be secured at the bottom of the lifeline to prevent tangling or disturbance of the line and be free of knots, lubricants and imperfections;
(d) be free of splices, except where they are necessary to connect the lifeline to an anchorage point;
(e) be provided with softeners at all sharp edges or corners to protect against cuts or chafing; and
(f) be clearly identified as a lifeline by colour or by another means that provides an equivalent level of safety.
(3) No worker shall
(a) use a lifeline in a fall arrest system while that fall arrest system is being used by another worker; or
(b) provide a rope for use, or permit a rope to be used, as a lifeline in a fall arrest system where the rope has been used for another purpose.
(4) Where a fall arrest system provided to a worker includes a ropegrab, the ropegrab used shall comply with CSA Standard Z259.2.1 "Fall Arresters, Vertical Lifelines and Rails".
(5) An employer who provides a worker with a fall arrest system shall ensure the fall arrest system is inspected by a qualified person before each work shift undertaken by the worker.
(6) A qualified person who carries out an inspection of a fall arrest system shall advise the employer where a component of the system is defective in condition or function and the employer shall ensure that the system is not used until the defective component is replaced or repaired.
(7) Where a fall arrest system has arrested the fall of a worker at a work area, the employer shall ensure that the fall arrest system
(a) is removed from service and inspected by a qualified person; and
(b) is repaired, before it is reused, to the original manufacturer's specifications, where an inspection under paragraph (a) reveals that a component of the system is defective.
(8) Where a fall arrest system includes a static line, the static line shall
(a) have a nominal diameter of at least 12.7 millimetres and be made of improved plow wire rope;
(b) be equipped with vertical supports at least every 9 metres and have a maximum deflection, when taut, of no greater than 381 millimetres for a 9 metre span;
(c) be equipped with turnbuckles or other comparable tightening devices that provide an equivalent level of protection, at the ends of the static line;
(d) be equipped with softeners at all sharp edges or corners to protect against cuts or chafing;
(e) be made only of components that are able to withstand either the maximum load likely to be imposed on the components or a load of 8 kilonewtons, whichever is the greater; and
(f) comply with CSA Standard Z259.13 "Flexible Horizontal Lifeline Systems" and CSA Standard Z259.16 "Design of Active Fall Protection Systems".
(9) Where a fall arrest system is provided to an arborist, the fall arrest system shall
(a) include a tree climbing or tree trimming harness or saddle;
(b) be adequately secured to
(i) an anchorage point, or
(ii) a lifeline that is
(A) securely fastened to anchorage points, or
(B) attached to a static line that is securely fastened to anchorage points;
(c) include a climbing rope or safety strap;
(d) where practicable, include a second climbing rope or safety strap that
(i) provides additional stability, and
(ii) back-up fall protection; and
(e) be capable of withstanding either the maximum load likely to be imposed or a load of 22.2 kilonewtons, whichever is the greater.
(10) Where an employer uses a fall arrest system or a personnel safety net as a means of fall protection, the employer shall have a written fall protection plan that specifies
(a) the procedure to assemble, maintain, inspect, use and disassemble the fall arrest system or personnel safety net; and
(b) the procedure for the rescue of a worker who has fallen and is suspended by the fall arrest system or personnel safety net, but is unable to effect self-rescue.
Section 143 Nets
143. (1) Where a personnel safety net is installed in accordance with section 141, an employer shall ensure that it
(a) is installed
(i) not more than 4.6 metres below the work area,
(ii) to ensure that no obstructions or intervening members may be struck by a worker during a fall between the work area and the personnel safety net, and
(iii) maintained so that the maximum deflection when arresting the fall of a worker does not allow a part of the worker to contact another surface;
(b) extends 2.4 metres on all sides beyond the work area; and
(c) where connected to another personnel safety net, the splice joints connecting it with the other personnel safety nets are equal to, or greater in strength than, the strength of the weakest of the personnel safety nets.
(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), an employer shall ensure that a personnel safety net is manufactured, used, maintained, inspected and stored in accordance with ANSI Standard A10.11-1989 "Safety Nets Used During Construction, Repair and Demolition Operations".
Section 144 Debris nets
144. (1) Where a worker having access to an area below an elevated work area is exposed to the hazard of falling objects or debris from the work area, an employer shall ensure that
(a) a debris net is installed below the work area in accordance with subsection (2); or
(b) other means of protection are provided that provide an equivalent level of protection from falling objects and debris.
(2) An employer shall ensure that a debris net under subsection (1) is
(a) manufactured, used, maintained, inspected and stored in accordance with ANSI Standard A10.11-1989 "Safety Nets Used during Construction, Repair and Demolition Operations"; and
(b) installed not more than 4.6 metres below the elevated work area.
Section 145 Travel restraint
145. An employer shall ensure that a body belt provided in accordance with section 141 complies with CSA Standard Z259 "Body Belts and Saddles for Work Positioning and Travel Restraint".
Section 146 Temporary flooring
146. Temporary flooring that is constructed or installed in accordance with section 141 shall
(a) be constructed or installed at each floor level of the work area where work is in progress;
(b) extend over the whole work area except for openings necessary for the carrying out of work;
(c) be able to withstand 4 times the maximum load likely to be imposed on it; and
(d) be securely fastened to and supported on members that are able to withstand 4 times the maximum load likely to be imposed on them.
Part XI SCAFFOLDS, STAGES AND WORK PLATFORMS
Section 158 Responsibilities
158. (1) Employers shall ensure that scaffolds used by their workers are in safe condition, regardless of who erected the scaffolds.
(2) A scaffold shall be erected, altered and dismantled by, or under the direct supervision of, qualified workers.
(3) A scaffold shall be inspected daily before use and after a modification.
(4) A damaged scaffold component shall not be used until it has been effectively repaired.
Section 160 Scaffold stability
160. (1) A scaffold shall be erected with vertical members plumb and ledgers and bearers level.
(2) The lower end of the vertical support of a scaffold shall be supported by firm and adequately sized foundations or sills.
(3) The poles, legs and uprights of a scaffold shall be securely and rigidly braced to prevent swaying and displacement.
(4) A scaffold shall be effectively guyed or secured to a building or structure where the height of the scaffold exceeds 3 times its minimum base.
(5) Where building ties or guys are used
(a) the first level of ties or guys shall be placed at a height not exceeding 3 times the scaffold minimum base dimension, and additional building ties or guys placed at vertical intervals not exceeding 6 metres; and
(b) the ties or guys shall be placed at horizontal intervals of every third bay or 6.4 metres, whichever is the lesser, and at the ends of the scaffold.
(6) A building tie shall be capable of resisting a working load of 4 kilonewtons, applied horizontally and perpendicular to the structure, or a proportionately equivalent load where ties are spaced closer together or guying is employed.
(7) Where a scaffold is enclosed by a tarp or other cover, bracing for the scaffold shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions or those of a professional engineer to meet design criteria for induced loads.
Section 163 Lumber planks
163. (1) Scaffold planks shall
(a) be rough sawn and of not less than 5.08 centimetres by 25.40 centimetre dimensions;
(b) extend not less than 15.24 centimetres and not more than 30.48 centimetres beyond the supporting members;
(c) be supported at intervals not exceeding 3.05 metres for light work and 2.13 metres for heavy work, including bricklaying and masonry;
(d) be of uniform thickness in adjoining planks; and
(e) have maximum allowable deflection not exceeding the span length divided by 80.
(2) Each lumber scaffold plank shall be visually inspected for defects before each installation and shall be removed from service where it is found to be defective.
Section 164 Manufactured planks
164. (1) A manufactured scaffold plank shall meet the requirements of section 163 and shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and limitations, except as provided in subsection (2).
(2) A single manufactured extension staging painter's plank may be used for the support of one worker only.
Section 165 Securing planks
165. Each lumber and manufactured scaffold plank installed for use shall be secured against dislodgement.
Section 166 Access to scaffolds
166. (1) Access to otherwise inaccessible working levels of a scaffold up to 9 metres above a floor or grade shall be provided by
(a) end frames providing a ladder-like structure having horizontal members uniformly spaced at approximately 30 centimetres on centre; or
(b) a vertical or portable ladder or stairway, attached to the scaffold.
(2) Access to otherwise inaccessible working levels of a scaffold over 9 metres above a floor or grade shall be provided by
(a) a stairway erected for the full height of the scaffold;
(b) a temporary passenger hoist approved for use under the Public Safety Act ;
(c) an attached vertical ladder, with rest platforms at least every 6.1 metres which are fully guarded except at the ladder location; or
(d) end frames with a ladder-like structure having horizontal members uniformly spaced at 30 centimetres on centre, and rest platforms at least every 6.10 metres which are fully guarded except at the ladder location.
(3) A worker shall not climb the outside of scaffold frames between landings.
Section 167 Vertical ladders
167. (1) A vertical ladder providing access to working levels of a scaffold shall
(a) be adequately fastened to the scaffold;
(b) be configured so that its siderails extend approximately one metre above the uppermost working level; and
(c) have rungs spaced at 30 centimetres on centre and have a clear space of at least 15 centimetres behind each rung.
(2) A ladder attached to a scaffold shall be positioned so that its use will not cause the scaffold to become unstable.
Section 168 Erection and dismantling
168. The requirements of sections 141 to 146 apply to the erection and dismantling of a scaffold.
Section 169 Spacing of components
169. The horizontal spacing between uprights, guardrail posts and bearers in a wood scaffold shall not exceed
(a) 3 metres for a light duty scaffold; or
(b) 2 metres for a heavy duty scaffold.
Section 170 Bracing of uprights
170. Adjacent uprights shall be connected with horizontal runners (ledgers and bearers) to ensure that the unbraced vertical length of an upright does not exceed 2.4 metres.
Section 171 Cross bracing
171. A scaffold shall be adequately supported in 2 directions by a system of diagonal cross braces secured to the uprights as close to the ledgers as possible.
Section 172 Wood scaffolds
172. (1) Components of a light duty single-pole wood scaffold shall have minimum nominal dimensions conforming to the following table:
|Uprights up to 6.10 metres||5.08 by 10.16 centimetres|
|Uprights 6.10 to 15.24 metres||10.16 by 10.16 centimetres|
|Bearers- 91.44 centimetres span||2.54 by 15.24 centimetres|
|Bearers 152.40 centimetre span||5.08 by 15.24 centimetres|
|Ledgers||2.54 by 15.24 centimetres|
|Braces||2.54 by 15.24 centimetres|
|Wall-scabs and bearer blocks||5.08 by 15.24 centimetres|
|Minimum platform width||2-5.08 by 25.4 centimetres|
|Top guardrails||5.08 by 10.16 centimetres|
|Intermediate guardrails||2.54 by 15.24 centimetres|
|Toe-boards||2.54 by 10.16 centimetres|
(2) Components of double-pole scaffolds shall have minimum nominal dimensions conforming to the following table:
|Light duty||Heavy duty|
|Uprights to 6.10 metres||5.08 by 10.16 centimetres||5.08 by 15.24 centimetres|
|Uprights 6.10 metres to 15.24 metres||10.16 by 10.16 centimetres||10.16 by 15.24 centimetres|
|Bearers- 152.4 centimetres span||2-2.54 by 15.24 centimetres or 1-5.08 by 15.24 centimetres||2-5.08 by 15.24 centimetres or 1-5.08 by 25.4 centimetres|
|Ledgers||2.54 centimetres by 15.24 centimetres||2.54 by 15.24 centimetres|
|Braces||2.54 centimetres by 15.24 centimetres||2.54 centimetres by 15.24 centimetres|
|Minimum platform width||2-5.08 by 25.4 centimetres||4-5.08 by 25.4 centimetres|
|Top guardrails||5.08 by 10.16 centimetres||5.08 by 10.16 centimetres|
|Intermediate guardrails||2.54 by 15.24 centimetres||2.54 by 15.24 centimetres|
|Toeboards||2.54 by 10.16 centimetres||2.54 by 10.16 centimetres|
|Note: Spacing of building ties||Vertical: 4.57 metres||Horizontal: 6.10 metres|
Section 173 Extension of uprights
173. (1) A wood upright may only be extended using a butt joint, strengthened by two wooden splice plates not less than 1.2 metres long.
(2) The splice plates for wood uprights shall have a minimum thickness of 38 millimetres and be of the same width as the spliced members.
(3) The combined cross-sectional area of the splice plates shall be at least that of the vertical upright member.
Section 174 Laminated uprights
174. When wood uprights are fabricated by the lamination of two or more pieces of material to obtain the required cross-sectional dimensions, the distance between joints shall be at least 1.2 metres.
Section 175 Bearer supports
175. (1) The inner ends of bearers on single-pole scaffolds shall be supported by bearer blocks and securely fastened to wall scabs.
(2) Manufactured bearer supports shall be
(a) of a design acceptable to the minister; and
(b) secured to solid wall materials.
(3) Bearer hooks which engage holes in the wall sheathing shall be adequately supported by stiffeners secured to wood studs or blocking.
Section 176 Pumpjack scaffold
176. (1) A pumpjack scaffold made of metal
(a) shall not be more than 13.7 metres in height; and
(b) shall be braced every 4.6 metres, starting at the base of the scaffold.
(2) A pumpjack scaffold that includes one or more supports made of wood
(a) shall not be more than 7.3 metres in height; and
(b) shall be braced every 3 metres, starting at the base of the scaffold.
(3) A pumpjack scaffold
(a) shall be used only as a light duty scaffold; and
(b) shall not be used by more than 2 workers at one time.
(4) A pumpjack scaffold shall have guard rails in accordance with section 28.
Section 177 Definitions
177. For the purpose of this section and sections 178 to 200,
(a) "end frame scaffold" means a system of fabricated tubular metal frames (panels) that are connected in the field with bracing members;
(b) "system scaffold" means a scaffold consisting of posts with fixed connection points which accept runners, bearers and diagonal braces that can be interconnected at predetermined levels;
(c) "tower scaffold" means a double-pole scaffold comprised of only one bay;
(d) "tube and coupler scaffold" means an assembly of tubing members (posts, bearers, runners, diagonal braces, ties), a base supporting the posts and special couplers to connect the uprights and to join the various members; and
(e) "tubular metal scaffold" means a scaffold with members made primarily of steel or aluminium tubing.
Section 178 Manufacturers specifications
178. Except as provided in section 179, a tubular metal scaffold shall
(a) be erected in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and specifications, including bracing in both vertical and horizontal planes;
(b) have all components installed and connected using the fasteners specified by the manufacturer, or fasteners of equivalent quality; and
(c) be maintained in a condition which meets the manufacturer's specifications.
Section 179 Compatibility
179. Where a scaffold is erected using components made by different manufacturers, the employer shall ensure that the components are compatible.
Section 180 Engineering requirements
180. A scaffold shall be erected and used in accordance with the written instructions of a professional engineer where the scaffold
(a) exceeds 25 metres in height;
(b) exceeds 20 metres in height where stairways are included as part of the scaffold;
(c) is used to support a temporary floor;
(d) is subject to loads which can cause overturning; or
(e) is suspended from a structure.
Section 181 Adjustable height bases
181. (1) A scaffold shall be erected plumb using adjustable height bases under the uprights to accommodate foundation settlement and uneven, sloping or stepped surfaces.
(2) Unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer, a height adjustment device shall not extend more than the lesser of two-thirds of its total length or 60 centimetres.
Section 182 Spacing
182. Spacing between frames or uprights shall not exceed the maximum allowable span for work platform components and for the intended loading.
Section 183 Couplings
183. (1) Vertical frames and uprights shall be joined using coupling or stacking pins to ensure proper vertical alignment.
(2) Where uplift could occur and cause components to separate, height adjusting screws, castors, coupling pins, frames and uprights shall be secured to prevent separation of components.
Section 184 Height restriction
184. The height of a free-standing tower or rolling scaffold shall not exceed 3 times its minimum base dimension.
Section 185 Outriggers
185. (1) Where outriggers are used to increase the minimum base dimension of a tower or rolling scaffold, the outriggers shall be installed on both sides of the scaffold structure.
(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), where outriggers are used to increase the minimum base dimension of a tower or rolling scaffold erected adjacent to a building or other structure, the scaffold shall be braced against the structure, and outriggers used on the opposite side.
Section 186 Wheels
186. (1) The wheels on at least one end of a rolling scaffold shall be the swivel type.
(2) The wheels of a rolling scaffold shall not be less than 13 centimetres in diameter and shall be secured in the scaffold leg to prevent the wheel from falling out while the scaffold is being erected, used or dismantled.
(3) Height adjusting screws for castors of a rolling scaffold shall extend not more than two-thirds of their total length or 30 centimetres whichever is the lesser.
(4) A wheel of a rolling scaffold shall be equipped with effective brakes or locking devices which shall be applied when workers are working on the scaffold.
(5) A rolling scaffold mounted on pneumatic tires shall have supports in addition to pneumatic tires while the scaffold is being erected or dismantled or when a worker is on it.
Section 187 Moving restrictions
187. A worker is not permitted on a rolling scaffold while it is being moved.
Section 188 Surface conditions
188. To ensure the stability of a rolling scaffold, the floor or surface over which it is moved shall be sufficiently firm, within 3of level, and free from pits, holes, depressions and obstructions.
Section 189 Components of tube and coupler scaffold
189. (1) Where 48 millimetres outside diameter aluminium or steel tube components are used in a tube and coupler scaffold
(a) the spacing of standards shall not exceed 3 metres;
(b) standards shall be connected with ledgers and transoms at a vertical spacing not to exceed 2 metres; and
(c) transoms constructed from 48 millimetres outside diameter aluminium or steel tubing shall be limited to 1.2 metre bearing length.
(2) A tube and coupler scaffold system which does not comply with the requirements of subsection (1) shall be constructed in accordance with the design of a professional engineer.
Section 190 Cross bracing
190. (1) A running scaffold shall have internal horizontal cross-bracing installed in the bay immediately adjacent to and at the level of a building tie unless equivalent bracing is achieved by use of fabricated scaffold planks secured by end hooks to provide a fully decked work platform at this level.
(2) A double-pole tube and coupler scaffold shall have internal bracing in accordance with subsection (1).