Personal Protective Equipment

Follow these links to related legislation

Highlighted words reveal definitions when selected

Controlling a hazard means reducing the risk of an injury or illness. The hierarchy of controls establishes that it is best to eliminate or substitute a hazard, where possible, and otherwise reduce the risk using engineering controls or administrative controls. Personal protective equipment (PPE) is considered to be the least effective method to control a hazard. PPE should only be used when other controls are not practical or adequate, as a short-term measure before controls are implemented, or during emergency situations.

The control(s) chosen must be specific to the task and must include procedures to monitor the effectiveness of the control(s) which are put in place. Monitoring controls ensures that health and safety in the workplace is not only maintained, but is continuously improved.

When selecting PPE, it is important that it is appropriate for the task. Some things to consider include:

  • The limitations of the PPE - Most types of PPE are only appropriate when used in specific conditions, such as below specific concentrations for an airborne hazard.
  • The fit - Poor fitting PPE can be uncomfortable, less effective, and even hazardous in itself (e.g. gloves that are too small or too large, ear plugs that are the wrong size). Never assume one type or size fits all, even where PPE is adjustable.
  • Training requirements - Employers must communicate where or when PPE is required. Training and education is also required for proper inspection, cleaning, maintenance, storage and use.

Employer Responsibilities

Employers must:

  • Ensure the health and safety of workers.
  • Make sure that any necessary protective clothing or devices are used or worn.
  • Follow the recognized standards to select PPE, and only allow the use of PPE that meets those standards. For more information, see Table 1 .
  • Make sure that all PPE is used correctly and provides adequate protection from the hazard(s).
  • Not use PPE that can be hazardous to the worker.
  • Make sure that all PPE used is compatible, so that one item does not make another ineffective.
  • Make sure all PPE is kept clean and in good working order.
  • Instruct workers who will be wearing PPE on how to properly use the clothing or device, its limitations, and how to maintain it in good working order.
  • If an area requires people entering it to wear hearing protection or respiratory protection, post signs stating the hazard and the required protection on entrance to the area.

Personal clothing and accessories

Employers must:

  • Make sure a worker’s personal clothing is not a hazard to the worker. Clothing that is inappropriate or in poor condition may increase the risk of injury in some situations (e.g., wearing open-toed shoes when there is a risk of items falling onto the foot).
  • Make sure those workers working near moving parts of machinery, electrically energized equipment or similar hazards:
    • Do not wear loose clothing;
    • Confine long hair and facial hair, or require them to be worn at a length that prevents it from being snagged or caught; and
    • Do not wear dangling jewellery, wristwatches, rings, or similar items. Medical alert bracelets may be worn if they have a transparent band or are covered with a transparent band that keeps the bracelet tight against the body.
  • Provide separate accommodations to keep street clothing clean and uncontaminated when it is necessary to protect against soiling work clothing or contaminating a worker’s street clothing.
  • Provide and maintain adequate and suitable facilities for personal washing. This must include a supply of clean hot and cold (or warm) water, soap and clean towels, or another suitable means of cleaning and drying.
  • Provide and maintain suitable, adequate and clean facilities for changing and showering when there is a high risk of a worker being contaminated by hazardous substances, infectious or offensive materials during regular work practices. Allow workers enough time during work hours to wash and change without losing pay or other benefits.

Protective headgear

Employers must:

  • Make sure workers wear CSA or NFPA approved safety headgear, as appropriate, where there is a danger of head injury from falling, flying or thrown objects, or other harmful contacts.

Eye and face protection

Employers must:

  • Make sure workers wear appropriate, CSA approved and properly fitted eye and face protection where they handle, or are exposed to materials or conditions that are likely to injure or irritate the eye or face.
  • Make sure employees wear appropriate PPE, if they could be exposed to flying fragments or particles, or make sure they are protected by an appropriate barrier.
  • Make sure workers only wear prescription glasses or similar eyewear if they are CSA approved or worn behind CSA approved eyewear.
  • Make sure that workers do not wear contact lenses where hazards exist that could create a danger to the eyes, such as work with certain chemicals and welding.
  • Make sure that employees who may be exposed to radiation from a welding arc have an adequate screen, curtain or partition to protect against the radiation, or wear suitable eye protection.

Arm, leg and body protection

Employers must:

  • Make sure workers wear appropriate and properly fitted protective clothing when their clothing or skin could be injured, contaminated or infected by a hazardous substance, or they could be exposed to ionizing radiation.
  • Consider the substances the worker will come in contact with when choosing the protective clothing.
  • Provide a suitably located changing area to change into the provided work clothing.
  • Keep protective clothing clean and dispose of them in a way that will not expose workers. Make sure they are handled with care to protect workers from exposure to hazardous substances.
  • Make sure workers wear leg protection (e.g. chaps and boots) when operating a chainsaw that has a label permanently attached to its outside, showing the standard it meets.
  • Make sure that radiation protective apparel meets the requirements of the Radiation Act and Regulations, and applicable Health Canada Safety Codes.

Protective footwear

Employers must:

  • Make sure workers wear appropriate and properly fitted protective footwear, including toe protection, metatarsal protection, puncture resistant soles, or electric shock protection, if required. When selecting foot protection consider the following:
    • Slipping
    • Uneven terrain
    • Abrasion
    • Ankle protection
    • Foot support
    • Crushing potential
    • Temperature extremes
    • Corrosive substances
    • Puncture hazards
    • Electrical shock
    • Other recognizable hazards.
  • Make sure workers wear leg protection (e.g. chaps and boots) when operating a chainsaw that has a label permanently attached to its outside, showing the standard it meets.

High visibility clothing

Employers must:

  • Make sure workers exposed to moving vehicles or heavy equipment wear high visibility clothing suitable for the circumstances, including both day and night use, and that meet the OHS Division Policy on High Visibility Safety Apparel.

Flame resistant clothing

Employers must:

  • Make sure workers with the potential to be exposed to a flash fire or electrical arc flash, wear flame resistant outer clothing and other protective equipment, if appropriate. All clothing worn underneath the flame resistant outer clothing must be made of flame resistant fabrics or natural fibers to make sure they do not melt when exposed to heat.

Hearing Protection

Employers must:

  • Make sure when a worker is required to work in an area in which noise levels exceed the ACGIH Noise Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) to take appropriate action to reduce noise to acceptable levels, or isolate the worker from the noise. Where this is not practical, make sure workers wear appropriate hearing protection for the level of noise.
  • Make sure that the workplace and activities are assessed for noise hazards.
  • Make sure where workers are exposed to noise above the ACGIH Noise TLVs to establish and maintain a hearing conservation program (in-writing) that includes the following:
    • A noise assessment to identify high noise areas and tasks. This assessment must be performed by a qualified person, in accordance with the standard;
    • Training and education for all workers in the health hazards of noise and the fitting, maintenance, care and use of hearing protection; and
    • Hearing tests for every worker exposed, conducted:
      • Within three months of starting employment;
      • On an annual basis; and
      • Where recommended by an audiologist or occupational physician.
  • Make sure that records associated with the hearing conservation program are kept by the employer or designate for at least as long as the worker remains employed. Records must include the results of hearing tests and proof of training for each worker, for the duration of their employment. Upon termination of employment, provide the worker with a record of noise exposure during the term of employment, upon requested.
  • If an area requires people entering it to wear hearing protection, post signs stating the hazard and the required PPE on entrance to the area.

Respiratory protection

Employers must:

  • Establish and maintain a written respiratory protection program which complies with the CSA standard, where workers could inhale a hazardous substance or be exposed to a low oxygen environment.
  • Make sure workers use an appropriate type of respiratory protection where breathing hazard exists and engineering controls and administrate controls are not practical or able to keep hazard(s) within acceptable levels. This respiratory protection must also be properly fitted to the worker.
  • Do not allow the use of compressed oxygen in air-supplying respirators that have previously been used to store compressed air, and make sure that they comply with the CSA standard.
  • Make sure an adequate number of trained rescue workers are immediately available whenever workers are in areas that have hazardous levels of contaminants or low oxygen levels. Rescue workers must have immediate access to appropriate respiratory protection and any other equipment or devices needed to perform rescue.
  • Select and provide appropriate respiratory protection. Respiratory protection must be certified by the NIOSH and must be selected based on the respiratory hazards present (e.g. chemical composition and physical state) and user factors that will affect performance and reliability. Where the exposure to a respiratory hazard cannot be identified, take immediate precautions to protect workers from immediate danger.
  • Make sure workers use air-supplying respiratory protection, when they could be exposed to an airborne hazard that is generated by a spray operation involving a sensitizing agent. Activities include application of a spray paint or similar coating, fibre-reinforced resin, thermoplastic material, expandable resin form, or similar materials.
  • Make sure workers use respiratory protection during welding, burning and cutting operations, when ventilation is not sufficient to keep contaminants below the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs).
  • Do not allow workers to wear respirators with a tight-fitting facepiece if they have hair, facial hair, or another condition that could hinder the effectiveness of the seal of the facepiece or valve function. Acceptable and unacceptable facial hair is established by the CSA standard.
  • Make sure workers who wear prescription glasses or goggles, or another type of PPE wear their tight-fitting respirator in a way that does not interfere with the seal of the facepiece.
  • Make sure workers using a tight-fitting respirator perform a seal fit check before each use.
  • Make sure workers keep respiratory protection sanitary by cleaning and disinfecting, as often as is necessary, and between users.
  • Make sure respiratory protection is inspected before each use and after cleaning.
  • Make sure emergency respiratory protection is inspected at least once a month, following the manufacturer's recommendations. Also, check that the equipment is functional before and after each use.
  • Make sure respiratory protection that is used for emergency escape only is inspected before it is brought into the workplace for use.
  • Make sure the respiratory protection is removed from service if an inspection reveals any damage.

Please note that during the COVID 19 pandemic special authorizations have been made for respiratory protection used for infection control purposes in healthcare settings that do not meet regulatory requirements. These interim orders can be found on the Health Canada website at https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/covid19-industry/medical-devices/personal-protective-equipment/medical-masks-respirators/authorization.html.

Supervisor Responsibilities

Supervisors must:

  • Make sure that the health and safety of workers under his or her supervision is protected.
  • Advise workers under his or her supervision of existing and potential health and safety hazards in the workplace.
  • Provide proper written or oral instructions to workers under his or her supervision regarding precautions to be taken for their protection.
  • Make sure workers under his or her supervision use or wear PPE, devices or other apparel, as required.

Worker Responsibilities

Workers must:

  • Take reasonable care to protect his or her health and safety, and that of workers and persons at, or near, the workplace.
  • Properly wear or use PPE, safeguards and safety and devices provided for their protection in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and training provided by the employer. and
  • Not wear personal clothing that could create a hazard. Clothing that is inappropriate or in poor condition may increase the risk of injury in some situations (e.g., wearing open-toed shoes when there is a risk of items falling onto the foot).
  • When working near moving parts of machinery, electrical equipment or similar hazards
    • Do not wear loose clothing;
    • Confine long hair and facial hair, or wear at a length that prevents it from being snagged or caught; and
    • Do not wear dangling jewellery, wristwatches or rings. Note: Medical alert bracelets may be worn, but must be fit snugly against the skin and have a transparent band.
  • Follow safe work practices and procedures.
  • Participate in training and hazard assessments, where it is offered.
  • Not use equipment or perform work tasks where the required training has not yet taken place.
  • Immediately report concerns and hazards to the supervisor or employer.

Table 1. Standards that apply to PPE and PPE programs

PPE and Program Application Standard
Hearing protection Where noise levels exceed the ACGIH Noise Threshold Limit Values (TLVs). CSA Z94.2 Hearing protection devices - performance, selection, care and use
Hearing conservation programs Where a written hearing conservation program is required. CSA Z107.56 Procedures for the measurement of occupational noise exposure
Hard hats and other safety headwear Where hazards could injure the head. CAN/CSA-Z94.1 Industrial protective headwear
Eye and face protectors Where hazards could cause injury to eyes or face. CAN/CSA Z94.3 Industrial eye and face protectors
Prescription eye and face protectors Where workers are required to wear prescription eye protection made from polycarbonate or plastic lenses. CAN/CSA Z94.3 Industrial eye and face protectors
Prescription eye and face protectors Where workers are required to wear prescription eye protection made from treated safety glass. ANSI Standard Z87.1 Practice for occupational and educational eye and face protections
Protective footwear Where workers are required to wear foot protection with toe protection, metatarsal protection, puncture resistant soles, or dielectric protection. CAN/CSA-Z195 Protective footwear
Respiratory Protection Where airborne contaminants exceed the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) or there is a low oxygen atmosphere. CSA Z94.4 Selection, use and care of respirators
Air-supplying respiratory protection Where workers are required to wear air–supplying respiratory protection that uses compressed breathing air, compressed oxygen, liquid breathing air, or liquid oxygen. CSA Z180.1 Compressed breathing air and systems
Respiratory protection programs Where a written respiratory protection program is required. CSA Z94.4 Selection, use and care of respirators
Chainsaw leg and foot protection Where workers are operating a chainsaw. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials)

WorkSafeBC WCB (Workers Compensation Board) Standard: PPE – 1997

Note:

  • The most recent revision date of each standard listed in this table must be used.
  • The CSA standards in this table do not apply to of Fire Services, Law Enforcement, Emergency Medical Services and others performing similar rescue functions.

Related Topics

Hierarchy of controls

The hierarchy, commonly depicted as a triangle, is a hazard control system used to eliminate, or otherwise reduce exposure to hazards.

Eliminate

Elimination removes the hazard. This strategy should be the top priority.

Substitute

Substitution reduces the hazard by replacing it with a less hazardous substitute. For example, a hazardous substance that is normally purchased as a powder could be replaced with a pelleted form that produces less airborne dust during handling.

Engineering controls

Engineering controls remove or reduce the hazard through the design of the workplace, equipment and tools. Common examples include ventilation or enclosing hazardous processes.

Administrative controls

Administrative controls eliminate or reduce exposure to the hazard by employing policies and procedures that reduce risk. Training is an example of an administrative control that increases "workers" knowledge of a hazard.

Personal protective equipment

Any equipment or device which protects a worker's body from injury, illness or death. PPE acts as a barrier to protect the worker from the hazard.
PPE should only be used:
  • Where other controls are not available or adequate.
  • As a short-term measure before controls are implemented.
  • During activities such as maintenance, clean up, and repair where other controls are not feasible or effective.
  • During emergency situations.

CSA

CSA is the Canadian Standards Association Group. Certain CSA standards are available for online viewing.
To access these, you must first create an account with "CSA Communities".
Go to: https://community.csagroup.org/login.jspa?referer=%252Findex.jspa
Once you are logged in, click on the text below the "OHS Standards / View Access" graphic.
Click on the jurisdiction of your choice to see the CSA Standards as referenced in that legislation.
Standards may also be purchased from CSA Group: https://store.csagroup.org/

Metatarsal protection

Metatarsal protection consists of a guard that protects the top of the foot from crushing injuries.

Flame resistant

Flame resistant, in reference to clothing, means made of a material that, due to its inherent properties or as a result of treatment by a flame retardant, slows, terminates or prevents flaming combustion.

ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists)

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) is a scientific organization that develops occupational exposure limits for chemical and physical hazards. These limits can be found in their TLVs® and BEIs® book.
In Newfoundland and Labrador, acceptable occupational exposure limits are established by the ACGIH.

Threshold Limit Values (TLVs)

Threshold limit values represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, over a working lifetime, without adverse health effects.

Audiologist

A healthcare professional whose focus is on the evaluation of hearing and rehabilitation of patients with hearing impairments.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is a research agency that is focused on the study of worker safety and health.

Sensitizing

Sensitizer means a chemical that can lead to an allergic response in some exposed people.

Fit check

Fit check means a negative or positive pressure check of a respirator's fit, performed in accordance with the respirator manufacturer's instructions

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) International

The ASTM is an international standards association that has over 12,000 standards that enhance performance and help everyone have confidence in the things they buy and use.

https://www.astm.org/

WorkSafeBC WCB (Workers Compensation Board) Standard: PPE – 1997

A provincial agency dedicated to promoting safe and healthy workplaces across B.C. WCB Standards outline specifications and performance criteria for specific types of equipment and machinery.

https://www.worksafebc.com/en/law-policy/occupational-health-safety/searchable-ohs-regulation/wcb-standards

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT
R.S.N.L. 1990, c. O-3

Section 4 Employers' general duty

4. An employer shall ensure, where it is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of his or her workers.

Section 5 Specific duties of employers

5. Without limiting the generality of section 4, an employer

(a) shall, where it is reasonably practicable, provide and maintain a workplace and the necessary equipment, systems and tools that are safe and without risk to the health of his or her workers;

(b) shall, where it is reasonably practicable, provide the information, instruction, training and supervision and facilities that are necessary to ensure the health, safety and welfare of his or her workers;

(c) shall ensure that his or her workers, and particularly his or her supervisors, are made familiar with health or safety hazards that may be met by them in the workplace;

(d) shall, where it is reasonably practicable, conduct his or her undertaking so that persons not in his or her employ are not exposed to health or safety hazards as a result of the undertaking;

(e) shall ensure that his or her workers are given operating instruction in the use of devices and equipment provided for their protection;

(f) shall consult and co-operate with the occupational health and safety committee, the worker health and safety representative or the workplace health and safety designate, where the employer is not the workplace health and safety designate, on all matters respecting occupational health and safety at the workplace;

(f.1) shall respond in writing within 30 days to a recommendation of

(i) the occupational health and safety committee at the workplace,

(ii) the worker health and safety representative at the workplace, or

(iii) where the employer is not the workplace health and safety designate, the workplace health and safety designate at the workplace

indicating that the recommendation has been accepted or that it has been rejected, with a reason for the rejection;

(f.2) shall provide periodic written updates to

(i) the occupational health and safety committee at the workplace,

(ii) the worker health and safety representative at the workplace, or

(iii) where the employer is not the workplace health and safety designate, the workplace health and safety designate at the workplace

on the implementation of a recommendation accepted by the employer until the implementation is complete;

(f.3) shall consult with

(i) the occupational health and safety committee at the workplace,

(ii) the worker health and safety representative at the workplace, or

(iii) where the employer is not the workplace health and safety designate, the workplace health and safety designate at the workplace

about the scheduling of workplace inspections that are required by the regulations, and ensure that the committee, the worker health and safety representative or the workplace health and safety designate participates in the inspection; and

(g) shall co-operate with a person exercising a duty imposed by this Act or regulations.

[S.N.L. 1999, c. 28, s. 2; 2001, c. 10, s. 25; 2004, c. 52, s. 1]

Section 5.1 Supervisors' general duty

5.1 A supervisor shall ensure, where it is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of all workers under his or her supervision.

[S.N.L. 2009, c. 19, s. 2]

Section 5.2 Specific duties of supervisors

5.2 A supervisor shall

(a) advise workers under his or her supervision of the health or safety hazards that may be met by them in the workplace;

(b) provide proper written or oral instructions regarding precautions to be taken for the protection of all workers under his or her supervision; and

(c) ensure that a worker under his or her supervision uses or wears protective equipment, devices or other apparel that this Act, the regulations or the worker's employer requires to be used or worn.

[S.N.L. 2009, c. 19, s. 2]

Section 6 Workers' general duty

6. A worker, while at work, shall take reasonable care to protect his or her own health and safety and that of workers and other persons at or near the workplace.

Section 7 Specific duties of workers

7. A worker

(a) shall co-operate with his or her employer and with other workers in the workplace to protect

(i) his or her own health and safety,

(ii) the health and safety of other workers engaged in the work of the employer,

(iii) the health and safety of other workers or persons not engaged in the work of the employer but present at or near the workplace;

(a.1) shall use devices and equipment provided for his or her protection in accordance with the instructions for use and training provided with respect to the devices and equipment;

(b) shall consult and co-operate with the occupational health and safety committee, the worker health and safety representative or the workplace health and safety designate at the workplace; and

(c) shall co-operate with a person exercising a duty imposed by this Act or regulations.

[S.N.L. 1999, c. 28, s. 3; 2001, c. 10, s. 26; 2004, c. 52, s. 2]

Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 2012
N.L.R. 5/12

Part III GENERAL DUTIES

Section 14 General duties of employers

14. (1) An employer shall ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that all buildings, structures, whether permanent or temporary, excavation, machinery, workstations, places of employment and equipment are capable of withstanding the stresses likely to be imposed upon them and of safely performing the functions for which they are used or intended.

(2) An employer shall ensure that necessary protective clothing and devices are used for the health and safety of his or her workers.

(3) The employer shall ensure that safe work procedures are followed at all workplaces.

(4) An employer shall ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that work procedures promote the safe interaction of workers and their work environment to minimize the potential for injury.

Section 17 General duties of workers

17. (1) A worker shall make proper use of all necessary safeguards, protective clothing, safety devices, lifting devices or aids, and appliances

(a) designated and provided for his or her protection by the employer; or

(b) required under these regulations to be used or worn by a worker.

(2) A worker shall follow the safe work procedure in which he or she has been instructed.

(3) A worker shall immediately report a hazardous work condition that may come to his or her attention to the employer or supervisor.

Part V GENERAL HEALTH AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

Section 35 Barriers

35. Where a worker may be exposed to flying fragments or particles, he or she shall be protected by an appropriate barrier or wear appropriate personal protection equipment.

Part VI OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH REQUIREMENTS

Section 62 Washing facilities

62. (1) An employer shall provide and maintain for the use of workers

(a) adequate and suitable facilities for personal washing; and

(b) a supply of clean hot and cold or warm water, soap and clean towels or other suitable means of cleaning or drying.

(2) Where there is a high risk of contamination of workers by hazardous substances, infectious or offensive materials as a part of the regular work processes at a place of employment, an employer shall

(a) where reasonably practicable, provide and maintain suitable, adequate and clean facilities for changing and showering; and

(b) allow sufficient time during normal working hours for a worker to use those facilities without loss of pay or other benefits.

Section 64 Work clothing and accommodations

64. (1) An employer shall provide and maintain, for the use of workers, clean, adequate, appropriately located and suitable accommodations for street clothing not worn during working hours and where it is necessary to protect the street clothing from becoming wet, dirty or contaminated by work clothing, separate accommodation shall be provided.

(2) Where a worker's work clothing or skin is likely to be contaminated by hazardous substances, an employer shall

(a) provide protective clothing and head cover appropriate to the work and hazard;

(b) provide a suitably located changing area; and

(c) ensure that the clothing and head cover are handled and cleaned or disposed of in a manner that prevents worker exposure to hazardous substances.

Section 68 Noise hazards

68. (1) When a worker is required to work in an area in which noise levels exceed the criteria for permissible noise exposure established by the ACGIH Noise Threshold Limit Values (TLVs)

(a) the employer shall first take appropriate action to implement control measures to reduce noise to acceptable levels; and

(b) where it is not practicable to reduce the noise to acceptable levels or to isolate workers from the noise, the workers shall wear personal protective equipment in accordance with CSA Z94.2 "Hearing Protection Devices - Performances, Selection, Care and Use" .

(2) Where conditions referred to in subsection (1) exist, an employer shall establish and maintain a hearing conservation program.

(3) A hearing conservation program established under subsection (2) shall comply with the following minimum requirements:

(a) a noise survey of the workplace to identify high noise areas shall be performed in accordance with CSA Z107.56 "Procedures for the Measurement of Occupational Noise Exposure" ;

(b) hearing tests for every worker exposed to noise levels in excess of permissible levels to be conducted on an annual basis or where recommended by an audiologist or occupational physician;

(c) a hearing test, within 3 months of commencement of employment, for each new worker who is exposed to noise in excess of the permissible levels; and

(d) mandatory training and education for all workers in the health hazards of noise and the fitting, maintenance, care and use of hearing protection.

(4) A hearing conservation program shall be documented and those records shall be kept by the employer or the employer designate while the worker remains employed by the employer.

(5) An employer shall post and maintain signs at entrances to or on the periphery of areas where persons are exposed to high noise levels in excess of the threshold limit.

(6) A sign referred to in subsection (5) shall clearly state that a noise hazard exists and shall describe the personal protective equipment that is required.

(7) Upon termination of employment, a worker may request from the employer a record of noise exposure during the term of employment.

Section 69 Painting, coating and working with plastics/resins

69. (1) This section applies to a workplace in which there is spraying or the use of paint or a similar coating, fibre-reinforced resin, thermoplastic material, an expandable resin form or other similar materials.

(2) Spraying a flammable or other hazardous product is prohibited within a general work area unless effective controls have been installed to control the fire, explosion and toxicity hazards.

(3) Where practicable, a coating shall not be applied to a material that is about to be welded.

(4) A work area or enclosure where hazardous materials are handled or used shall be posted with suitable signs or placards warning workers of the hazards within the identified restricted access area and stating the precautions for entry into the area.

(5) Where practicable, a ventilated spray booth or other enclosure designed to control worker exposure shall be used during

(a) an operation or process which involves spraying paint or resin;

(b) lay-up or moulding of reinforced plastic; or

(c) an application of a paint, coating or insulation containing a sensitizer including an isocyante compound, or similar operations using toxic materials.

(6) The air velocity through a horizontal flow spray booth, a vertical flow, down-draft or other enclosure required by subsection (5) shall be as prescribed by a standard acceptable to the minister.

(7) In outdoor applications of materials or processes listed in subsection (5), an air velocity across the work area of at least 50 fpm shall be assured, by mechanical means where necessary, to carry vapours and aerosols away from the breathing zone of a worker.

(8) A ventilation system subject to heavy concentrations of over-spray from the operation shall have an arrester filter which is maintained in good operating condition and replaced when the pressure drop across the filter exceeds the design criteria.

(9) A worker who is or may be exposed to an airborne contaminant generated by a spray operation involving a sensitizing agent shall be provided with and shall wear air-supplied respiratory protection.

(10) Only a qualified person authorized by the employer may operate

(a) an airless spray unit of the type which atomizes paint and fluid at pressure;

(b) a spray paint powered by compressed air in excess of 10 psi; or

(c) a chopper spray gun unit.

(11) An airless spray gun shall have

(a) a means to electrically bond the gun to the paint reservoir and pump;

(b) a guard that protects against trigger activation where the gun is dropped; and

(c) a trigger function configured to require two distinct operations by the user to activate the release of paint or fluid through the nozzle, or a safety device which prevents the nozzle tip from coming into contact with the worker.

(12) Emissions from operations involved in heating plastics to temperatures which may release thermal decomposition products shall be removed from the workplace by local exhaust ventilation when there is a risk of harm to a worker from exposure to these emissions.

(13) A resin foam installation process performed indoors shall be controlled or contained so that an unprotected worker is not exposed to emissions by using an enclosure or portable local exhaust ventilation or by scheduling arrangements.

(14) A resin foam installation process performed outdoors and relying on natural ventilation shall be completed in an area restricted to authorized personnel wearing adequate personal protective equipment.

(15) Safe work procedures shall be developed for lead paint removal operations, including provisions for warning unauthorized persons, worker training, containment, ventilation, work practices, personal protective equipment worker decontamination and safe means of disposal.

Part VII PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

Section 71 Selection, use and maintenance

71. Personal protective equipment shall

(a) be selected and used in accordance with recognized standards and provide effective protection;

(b) not in itself create a hazard to the wearer;

(c) be compatible so that one item of personal protective equipment does not make another item ineffective; and

(d) be maintained in good working order and in sanitary condition.

Section 72 Instruction

72. An employer shall ensure that a worker who wears personal protective equipment is adequately instructed in the correct use, limitations and assigned maintenance duties for the equipment to be used.

Section 73 Personal clothing and accessories

73. (1) The personal clothing of a worker shall be of a type and in a condition which does not expose the worker to an unnecessary or avoidable hazard.

(2) Where there is a danger of contact with moving parts of machinery or with electrically energized equipment, or where the work process presents similar hazards

(a) the clothing of a worker shall fit closely about the body;

(b) dangling neckwear, bracelets, wristwatches, rings or similar articles shall not be worn, except for medical alert bracelets which may be worn with transparent bands that hold the bracelets snugly to the skin; and

(c) cranial and facial hair shall be confined or worn at a length which shall prevent it from being snagged or caught in the work process.

Section 74 General requirements of safety headgear

74. (1) Safety headgear shall be worn by a worker where there is a danger of head injury from falling, flying or thrown objects, or other harmful contacts.

(2) Safety headgear shall meet the requirements of CSA Standard CAN/CSA-Z94.1 "Industrial Protective Headwear" or, in the case of emergency response personnel, the applicable National Fire Protection Association Standard.

Section 75 Eye and face protection

75. Where a worker handles or is exposed to materials or conditions that are likely to injure or irritate the eye or face, an employer shall ensure that he or she wears properly fitting face and eye protection appropriate to the conditions of the workplace and in accordance with the requirements of CSA Standard CAN/CSA Z94.3 "Industrial Eye and Face Protectors".

Section 76 Prescription safety eyewear

76. (1) Prescription safety eyewear shall meet the requirements of CSA Standard CAN/CSA Z94.3 "Industrial Eye and Face Protectors".

(2) Bifocal and trifocal glass lenses shall not be used where there is a danger of impact unless the lenses are worn behind impact-rated goggles or other eye protection acceptable to the minister.

(3) Where the use of polycarbonate or plastic prescription lenses is impracticable due to the conditions of the workplace and there is no danger of impact, a worker may use prescription lenses made of treated safety glass meeting the requirements of ANSI Standard Z87.1 "Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protections".

Section 77 Contact lenses

77. Adequate precautions shall be taken where a hazardous substance or condition may adversely affect a worker wearing contact lenses.

Section 78 General requirements of limb and body protection

78. Where there is a danger of injury, contamination or infection to a worker's skin, hands, feet or body, the worker shall wear properly fitting protective equipment appropriate to the work being done and the hazards involved.

Section 79 Leg protection

79. A worker operating a chain saw shall wear a leg protective device with a label permanently affixed to the outer surface of the device indicating the standard it meets.

Section 80 Foot protection

80. (1) A worker's footwear shall be of a design, construction, and material appropriate to the protection required.

(2) To determine the appropriate protection under subsection (1) the following factors shall be considered:

(a) slipping;

(b) uneven terrain;

(c) abrasion;

(d) ankle protection;

(e) foot support;

(f) crushing potential;

(g) temperature extremes;

(h) corrosive substances;

(i) puncture hazards;

(j) electrical shock; and

(k) another recognizable hazard.

(3) Where a determination has been made that safety protective footwear is required to have toe protection, metatarsal protection, puncture resistant soles, dielectric protection or a combination of these, the footwear shall meet the requirements of CSA Standard CAN/CSA-Z195, Protective Footwear.

Section 81 High visibility apparel

81. A worker whose duties are regularly performed in areas and under circumstances where he or she is exposed to the danger of moving vehicles or heavy equipment shall wear distinguishing apparel containing highly visible material suitable for daytime or night time use, as appropriate.

Section 82 Flame resistant clothing

82. (1) Where a worker may be exposed to a flash fire or electrical equipment flashover, an employer shall ensure that the worker wears flame resistant outerwear and uses other protective equipment appropriate to the hazard.

(2) A worker shall ensure that clothing worn beneath flame resistant outerwear and against the skin is made of flame resistant fabrics or natural fibers that do not melt when exposed to heat.

Section 83 Respiratory protection program

83. Where required, an employer shall establish, implement and maintain, and revise where necessary, a written respiratory protection program in accordance with CSA Standard Z94.4 "Selection, Use and Care of Respirators" .

Section 84 Respiratory protection

84. (1) When a worker is or may be exposed to an oxygen deficient atmosphere or harmful concentrations of air contaminants, atmospheric contamination shall be prevented to the extent practicable by accepted engineering controls and when engineering or other controls are not practicable, appropriate respiratory protection equipment shall be used in accordance with this section.

(2) Respiratory protection equipment shall be provided by an employer when the equipment is necessary to protect the health of a worker.

(3) An employer shall ensure that compressed air, compressed oxygen, liquid air and liquid oxygen used for respiration comply with the specifications of CSA Code Z180.1 Compressed Breathing Air and Systems .

(4) An employer shall ensure that compressed oxygen is not used in atmosphere-supplying respiratory equipment that has previously used compressed air.

(5) Access points shall display signs warning that respiratory protection equipment is required and naming the contaminant or hazard involved.

(6) An employer shall ensure that sufficient workers who are trained in rescue procedures are immediately available whenever workers are working in areas where an oxygen deficient atmosphere or hazardous contaminants may be present.

(7) A rescue worker referred to in subsection (6) shall have immediate access to appropriate breathing apparatus or other aids necessary to effect a rescue.

Section 85 Respiratory protection equipment

85. (1) An employer shall select and provide appropriate respiratory protection equipment based on the respiratory hazard to which a worker is exposed and workplace and user factors that affect the performance and reliability of the equipment.

(2) The equipment referred to in subsection (1) shall be certified by the National Institution of Occupational Safety and Health and used in compliance with the conditions of its certification.

(3) An employer shall identify and evaluate the respiratory hazards in the workplace, and the evaluation shall include an employee's potential exposure to respiratory hazards and an identification of the contaminant's chemical composition and physical state.

(4) Where an employer cannot identify the exposure referred to in subsection (3), the employer shall take immediate precautions to protect a worker from immediate danger.

(5) An employer shall not permit a respirator with a tight-fitting facepiece to be worn by an employee who has

(a) hair on the face or scalp that is likely to prevent effective sealing of the facepiece to the facial skin; or

(b) a condition that interferes with the face to facepiece seal or valve function.

(6) Where an employee wears corrective glasses or goggles or other personal protective equipment, the employer shall ensure that the equipment is worn in a manner that does not interfere with the seal of the facepiece to the face of the user.

(7) Where a tight-fitting respirator is used by an employee, an employer shall ensure that the employee performs a user seal check before each use.

Section 86 Inspection and maintenance of respiratory protection equipment

86. (1) Respiratory protection equipment that is issued for the exclusive use of an employee shall be cleaned and disinfected as often as necessary to maintain it in a sanitary condition.

(2) Respiratory protection equipment that is issued for the use of more than one employee shall be cleaned and disinfected before being worn by different individuals.

(3) An employer shall ensure that respiratory protection equipment is inspected as follows:

(a) equipment used in routine situations is inspected before each use and after cleaning;

(b) equipment maintained for use in emergency situations is inspected at least once monthly and according to the manufacturer's recommendations, and is checked for proper function before and after each use; and

(c) emergency escape only equipment is inspected before being carried into the workplace for use.

(4) Where an inspection conducted under subsection (3) reveals damage, the equipment shall be discarded.

Part XXI WELDING, BURNING AND CUTTING OPERATIONS

Section 452 Radiation protection

452. (1) Arc welding shall not be carried out unless a worker who may be exposed to radiation from the arc flash is protected by an adequate screen, curtain or partition or wears suitable eye protection.

(2) A screen, curtain or partition near an arc welding operation shall be made of or treated with a flame-resistant material or coating, and have a nonreflective surface finish.

Section 457 Respiratory protection

457. Respiratory protective equipment shall be provided and worn where an effective means of natural, mechanical or local exhaust ventilation is not practicable.